But a whole lot of modern systems do, in fact, do this binary encoding here and they use the principles that came out of the binary encoding from a long time ago. Information theory does not deal with information at all, it deals with data. What I hope you will all do by the end of the term is find those little nasties on your own before I start to talk about them. Download files for later. It's almost the same as the vector space associated with finite sequences of wave form, and that vector space associated with a finite sequence of numbers is exactly the vector space that you've been looking at all of your lives, and which you use primarily as a notational convenience to talk about a sequence of numbers. You say OK, it's Tom's job who was designing the channel encoder to make sure that my bits come out here as the same bits. Lecture 2 (01/09) summary pptx pdf. The second class, 6.451, is offered in the spring. You take all of those and after you have all of these in your mind, you then start to study the real engineering problem and you say I put together this and this and this and this and this -- this is important, this is not so important, here, this is more important. And match bits at one rate into bits at a higher rate, and this let's you correct channel errors. The things you can't change here, you can't change the structure of the source usually, and you can't change the structure of the channel. Courses Digital Communication Systems (EE419) Recorded Lectures Teacher: Dr. Andrew Thangaraj. Namely, at this interface between here and here, the idea is the same. They often don't work or are not robust. If you look at the whole system and you try to understand it as a whole, you don't have prayer. If you don't have that background, please don't take the course because you're going to be crucified. You want to look at whole sequences of them. If the symbols here, for example, are binary symbols and the symbols happen to be 1 with probability 999 out of 1,000, and zero with probability 1 in 1,000, you don't really just want to take these symbols and map them in a straightforward way, 1 into 1 and zero into zero. Namely, when we start to talk about a simple model, be interested in the simple model, study it, find out what it's all about, but at the same time, for Pete's sake, ask yourself the question. Displaying all 39 video lectures. You suddenly realize that somehow it's going to be important to turn these binary streams into wave forms, which are more or less compressed into some frequency bands. You quantize those numbers, that gives you a symbol sequence. You know what a blinking 12 is. This course will provide an overview of current and future wireless systems, wireless channel models including path loss, shadowing, and statistical multipath channel models. these lectures are from an IIT professor. The following content is provided under a Creative Commons license. Now, think a little bit about what might be essential in that process. It's not that highly specialized, and software is not either. PROFESSOR: As this says, and all the handouts say that this is 6.450. Lecture 1 (01/07) pptx pdf. This is all very crude but it's going to lead us to an interesting trade-off. If you've taken a course called statistics and probability, which first teaches you statistics and then tucks in a little bit of probability at the end, go learn probability first because you don't have enough of it to take this subject. 21/06/15 1 Chapter 1: Communication System An Introduction 2. And we will deal with the fact that this noise has infinite power, and find out how to deal with that. A guy by the name of Hamming became very famous for generalizing this just a little bit into another single error correcting code, which came through at a slightly higher rate but still corrected single errors. These numbers are supposed to resemble these numbers in some way or other. One of the peculiar things in trying to understand how biological organisms, which have remarkable systems for communicating information from one place to another, how they manage to do it. He was working on other things, which were, in fact, very important things, and he was doing those things for the government. Most modern systems don't do that strict layering. It usually will have some relation but not a complete relation. So it's a whole new generalization of this whole problem of how do you communicate. The coding goes in the opposite order. Namely, this guy could correct double errors instead of single errors, because if one bit came through with a clear indication that that's what it was, and the other two bits came through saying well, I can't really tell what these are, then this guy could correct two errors instead of one error. It's sort of the major first course that you take as a graduate student in the communication area. And then finally, if you're a really good engineer, instead of writing down an equation, you take an envelope, as the story goes, and you scribble down a few numbers, and you say the way this system ought to be built is the following. The point of that is it doesn't really make any difference as an engineer whether you're going from 4,800 to 9,600 or from 9,600 to 19.2 or from 19.9 to 38.4 or whatever it is, or so forth up. YEAR 1 COURSES ELEC1111 Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering (Dr J. Ravishankar) ELEC1112 Electrical Circuits (Dr J. Ravishankar) ELEC1112 Electrical Circuits (A/Professor J. Epps … It's something that most students don't understand. Communication systems convert information into a format appropriate for the transmission medium Some channels convey electromagnetic waves (signals). One thing is that the power and the noise is going up with the bandwidth that you're looking at. The way you describe sources is how many bits per second do you need as a way of viewing that source. We work on them because we want to understand some aspect of the real problem. NPTEL Video Lectures, IIT Video Lectures Online, NPTEL Youtube Lectures, Free Video Lectures, NPTEL Online Courses, Youtube IIT Videos NPTEL Courses. You all know this. Subject: Communication Systems 2 SMART Subject Teacher: Dr. Abdul Sattar Saand Objectives of the Course-Synopsis This course introduces students Communication Systems This course will give you a comprehensive overview of a wide range of communications systems and networks, including voice, data, video, and multimedia. There was a time in the early '70s when all the theoreticians who worked in communication theory all were going around with long faces saying everything that we can do has been done, the field is dead, nothing more to do, might as well give up and go into another field. What the channel accepts is either of these binary streams or packets, but then queueing exists. Send to friends and colleagues. Anyway, information theory is very much based on a bunch of very abstract ideas. If I take a single bit that's either zero or 1, I map a zero into one wave form, I map a 1 into another wave form, I send either wave form a or wave form b. I somehow want to make those wave forms as different from each other as I can. You round off the pennies in your checkbook. How do you encode things more efficiently? All reading content will be provided within the App only. You send a number and then at the output out comes the Gettysburg Address because you've stored that there. If you build a new product that sends 9,600 bits per second, which was a major technological achievement back in the '70s and '80s, suddenly your company becomes a very important communication player. I could take each sequence of eight bits, turn them into 1 of 256 wave forms, transmit one wave form, then a little bit later transmit another wave form and so forth. So the three stages in that process are first go to sequences, go from sequences to symbols -- namely, you have a finite number of symbols, which are quantized versions of those analog numbers which can be anything. These simulations and videos are accessed via its associated app, "Communication Systems”, in the iOS and Android app stores. Two points to that story. Each one of these is just putting in a few new goodies, recognizing a few new things, making the system a little bit better. It's partly what we were just starting to say over here. 6.432, the stochastic process course uses it as a prerequisite. FreeVideoLectures aim to help millions of students across the world acquire knowledge, gain good grades, get jobs. It doesn't have any meaning as far as the channel is concerned. This thing is that entire system we were talking about before. There's a standard way of doing this, which is to take the sequence of bits, first send them through a discrete decoder. The source might produce packets or the source might produce a stream of data. In all of these communication system design problems, one of the things that gets straight is when you're worrying about the engineering of something, what parts of the system can you control and what parts of it can't you control. This is a good case study of why the information theoretic approach works and why theory works. Even more when you get into layering -- what parts can you control and what parts can other people control. Most of us have become blinking 12's. You look at them to see what's in them and they're inordinately complicated. The word complex is an extraordinarily complex word. (Chap. We will have those notes on the web shortly. The final lectures deal with the application of cooperative techniques to modern networks including mobile edge clouds, wireless sensor networks and p2p networks. Occasionally you will feel boring but once gone through, you will be left with (almost) no doubts. Part of the stupidity is that the problems that you work on as a graduate student, even in your thesis, the problems that you work on are not real problems. In other words, what comes out of the demodulator is soft decisions, and soft decisions say well, I think it was this but I'm not sure or I am sure and so forth. Fundamentally, how much does it cost to build the system? At the output of the whole system, you hope you see 10 separate pictures. If you have enough lead time they become cheap. He won't read it for a week anyway, if he reads it at all, so what difference does it make? If you have a certain amount of power that you're willing to transmit and a certain amount of noise, and the number of bits per second you can transmit is going up with w. But look at this affect with p here, the effect with p is logarithmic, which says as I increase this parameter m and I put more and more bits into one symbol, this quantity is going up exponentially, which means the logarithm of this is going up just linearly with m. This gives you, if you look at it carefully, the same trade-off as the simple-minded example I was talking about. Third bit can be 1 or zero also -- that makes eight combinations of three bits. The problems that we work on everywhere in engineering are toy problems. OK, so anyway, the big field, it's an important field. Usually when errors occur, errors occur just barely. When you talk about information theory, it's a total misnomer from the beginning. I will start to say what that means as we go on, but basically it means that it's based on very simple-minded models. Digital Communication - Prof. Bikash Kumar Dey 17. That simple-minded example does not explain this formula at all. This is a distinctly information theoretic idea, because communication used to be involved with studying different kinds of wave forms. There are more than 350+ Video Courses, more than 12000 video lectures across 10 subjects. NPTEL Video Lectures, IIT Video Lectures Online, NPTEL Youtube Lectures, Free Video Lectures, NPTEL Online Courses, Youtube IIT Videos NPTEL Courses. Your support will help MIT OpenCourseWare continue to offer high quality educatiohal resources for free. So part of the layering idea is we just recreate this whole thing here as the same bits and we don't worry about what happens when the bits are different. But those things are still always there. It's the thing that happens when your eyes fuzz over a little bit and you can't see any of the details anymore, and suddenly what you're doing is you're looking at the whole thing as an entity and saying how do the pieces fit together. The course serves as an introduction to the theory and practice behind many of today's communications systems. 2 Introduction A digital communication system conveys discrete-time, discrete-valued information across a physical channel. Now, you look at this noise and you say I have to keep some separation between these numbers. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum.. No enrollment or registration. Let me jump ahead. ), Learn more at Get Started with MIT OpenCourseWare, MIT OpenCourseWare makes the materials used in the teaching of almost all of MIT's subjects available on the Web, free of charge. You can do everything more cheaply now than you could before. That, at the fundamental level, is what we're doing here. Because it's not at all clear at first why we want to study the silly things that we'll be studying in the course, and I want to give you some idea today of why we're pushed into doing that. There'd been an enormous amount of research done on it in the ten years before 1960. 3216 Views. You turn them into binary digits. If people tell you that information theory isn't important, please remember that story or else tell them to start to study vacuum tubes. That's the major layering of all communication systems. Because if you started out with the problem of saying I want to build something to encode voice, and you try to do all of these together, and you look up all the things you can find about voice encoding on the web and you read all of them, what you will wind up with, I can guarantee you, is you will know an enormous amount of jargon, you will know an enormous number of different systems, which each half work, you will not have the slightest clue as to how to build a better system. So the problem is the source encoder takes these bits, takes the source, whatever it is, with its meaning and everything else, turns it into a stream of bits -- you would like to turn it into as few bits as possible. It doesn't have to break down into those three pieces, but it usually does. The final lectures deal with the application of cooperative techniques to modern networks including mobile edge clouds, wireless sensor networks and p2p networks. You see a lot of these things in computer science. Introduction To Data Communication, Data Communication System, Components Of Data Com Systems, Data Communication Messages, Communication Terminology. Most source coding you start out with a wave form, such as with voice, or with pictures you start out with what's more complicated than a wave form, some kind of mapping from x-coordinate and y-coordinate and time, and you map all of those things into something. The other part of dealing with these channels is that suddenly we have to deal with 4AA analysis and all of these things, if you don't have some kind of subject in signals and systems. If this poor guy had that information, this poor guy could work much, much better. In fact, we'll take wave forms and break them into sequences. There was a sort of apocryphal story awhile ago that somebody told me about a graduate student, not at MIT, thank God, who went into see the person teaching a course on wireless and saying, I don't want to know all that theory, I don't want to have to think about these things, just tell me how to do the problems. 6.450 forms the first of a two-course sequence on digital communication. They might call it bandwidth but what they're talking about is the number of bits per second they can communicate. Part of the reason it's such a lousy language is because the problem is incredibly difficult. ... COMMUNICATION course by VU PAKISTAN. You can also get course completion certification for some of the courses. What we call the statistics of the source get very much blended in with what this organism is trying to do. Data compression is the word usually given to this. How do you turn an analog wave form into a sequence of numbers? I don't care much whether it takes a second or a minute or an hour to get to this other person. If the two don't come together, then you have to fire the engineers, hire some new engineers or do something else or you get fired. Again, you can't learn it on the fly because you need a little bit of background for it. I know what it means to make numbers different. This is a collection of links to audio/video lectures of CS 162: Operating Systems and Systems Programming, from UC Berkeley Webcasts. The neat thing about the sin x over x caps around them is they all go to zero with these sample points and it all works. This was not a mistake many, many years ago, but it is a mistake now, because communication theory at its core is information theory. What I'm trying to do is to overcome this noise, and therefore, I have to find the measure of distance which is appropriate for what the noise is doing to me. The bit stream does have a meaning as far as the source is concerned. So the exercises that we're going to be doing are really aimed at understanding these simple models. Video-on-demand Course. Introduction to Mass Communication: 194 MCM301: Communication skills: 195 MCM304: Mass Media in Pakistan: 196 MCM310: Journalistic Writing: 197 MCM311: Reporting and Sub-Editing: 198 MCM401: Fundamentals of Public Relations What you see at this point is you almost flip a coin to decide whether a zero or a 1 was transmitted at this point. One of the things that you will become curious about as we move along is that we are sometimes suggesting doing things in ways that look very complex. You move around to different frequencies, the noise is still there. If I didn’t, you could just watch a recording! At this point the quantizer produces a string of symbols. That's what digital communication is. There's very little communication today that starts out with an analog wave form and finds a way to transmit it without first going into a binary sequence. You look at the faculty here in the department and you're a little surprised to see that there are so few faculty members in digital communication, so many faculty members in the computer area. Basically we try to answer the question ‘how information flows from one point to another at the most basic level? Then in the channel you have the same sort of thing. Yeah. What we want to do is to study the aspects of communication systems that are unique to communication systems. Click on the dates for streamed videos from youtube. Check my site on digital communications tutorials. EE1 and ISE1 Communications I Pier Luigi Dragotti Lecture five Lecture Aims • To » All published courses MIT 6.450 Principles of Digital Communications I MIT 6.013 / ESD.013J Electromagnetics and Applications MIT 4.367 Studio Seminar in Public Art MIT 21F.034 Media, Education, and the Marketplace MIT- 2.993 Spec. Now, that is a miserable code. This takes a single zero, turns it into three zeros. It would be nice if I could send it at optical speeds. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach & DiscreteProbability 6. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Introduction to Information Theoretic Approach 5. That's the way you describe channels -- how many bits per second can you send? This was a very popular way of trying to design system. » It's a first year graduate course in the principles of digital communication. This input here is going to be created somehow in a process of modulation from this binary stream that's coming into the channel encoder. This tutorial helps the readers to get a good idea on how the signals are digitized and why digitization is needed. After you wind up with sequences, sequences of numbers, we worry about how to quantize those numbers, because fundamentally we're trying to get from wave forms into bits. Then you have this reliable binary channel. So it's important. If you know something about practical engineering systems for communication, you know that there's an organization in the U.S. called the FCC, and every other country has its companion set of initials, which says what part of the radio spectrum you can use and what part of the radio spectrum you can't use. Suddenly, at this point, people are studying all these other things and are based on Claude Shannon's ideas, therefore, we will teach some of those ideas as we go. Lecture 1 (01/07) pptx pdf. Introduction to Wireless Communications. Now, we talked about this fundamental layer in all communication systems, which is between source coding and channel coding. Home One of the major parts of the course will be to understand what this noise is in a much deeper context than we would otherwise. When you store a picture, how do you talk about it? If the bits are wrong it's his fault. It's the way the different pieces fit together. With more than 2,400 courses available, OCW is delivering on the promise of open sharing of knowledge. What I will always do is I'll try to cheat you into thinking the problem is simpler than it is, and then I will talk about all of the added little nasties that come in as soon as you try to use any of this stuff. Then I will take those evenly spaced numbers between zero and 1 and I'll modulate some wave form, whatever wave form I happen to choose, and I will send that wave form. introduction to communication theory (21) About Downloadmela is a educational download portal that provides interview questions,video lectures,question papers,aptitude,puzzles,reasoning,sample resumes,essays,presentations,projects,tutorials and cheat sheets. Lectures . Digital Communication Systems (EE419) Recorded Lectures Teacher: Dr. Andrew Thangaraj. They told me I should go into vacuum tubes, which was the coming field at that time. Why can you study them both together? You will not see as much excitement here. The problem is we have so much complexity we don't know how to deal with it anymore. Toggle navigation. ... 40 videos Advanced Control System Design for Aerospace Vehicles. This is sort of Moore's law. Back in 1960, a long, long time ago when I got my PhD degree, the people at MIT, the people who started this field, many of them told me that information theory was dead at that point. You will find out that the sampling theorem really isn't the way to do it. Freely browse and use OCW materials at your own pace. So that's the idea of source coding. Use OCW to guide your own life-long learning, or to teach others. It started off with computer systems because it became essential there to start thinking in terms of architecture. Like death and taxes, you can take care of yourself and live longer, and with taxes, well, you can become wealthy and support the government and make all sorts of payments and reduce your taxes that way. So you find the system which has no constraints in it, and it evolves with all of these things changing at the same time. Comprehensive and free. It's just that a one is different from a zero, and you don't care how it's different, it just is. ), Learn more at Get Started with MIT OpenCourseWare, MIT OpenCourseWare makes the materials used in the teaching of almost all of MIT's subjects available on the Web, free of charge. As a matter of fact, if you've taken the course, you still don't understand it, and you will need to scramble a little bit to understand it at a deeper level in order to understand what's going on here. The reason for all these equations that we have, it's not a way to understand reality. Digital Systems Design - Prof. D. Roychoudhury 20. So, I take the first m binary digits, then I take the next m binary digits, and the next m binary digits and so forth. Mainly the architecture is the overall design. This is a part of this two-term sequence. It deals with this huge industry, which is the communication industry. As far as their function of word processing, some of us think there have been advances in the last 30 years. View communication system.pdf lecture.pdf from ELECTRONIC 101 at International Islamic University, Islamabad. Then this bit stream gets presented to the channel. The fundamental problem of the channel is very, very simple. Knowledge is your reward. I can take you through a little bit of a thought experiment which will sort of explain that, I think. This course is for those students interested in the design, performance analysis, and fundamental performance limits of wireless communication systems. Other things are just messy. This is something called soft decoding instead of hard decoding. Those two prerequisites are really essential. Or you can hire a good accountant. There are things where there just isn't any structure. Call us at 8287971571 or fill the form below. He had these ideas turning around in his head for about eight years while the second World War was going on. I can increase m and by increasing m I can get by with a smaller bandwidth, because I have these symbols, these m bit symbols coming along at a slower rate. That's the way all important systems get built, I claim. Nobody in retrospect understands why that is. Others, like myself, feel that there have not been advances and, in fact, we're going backwards. Then you learn the various other parts of that as you go along. Most people who have complicated devices, whether they're audio devices or what have you, are using less than one percent of the fancy features in them. Data Communication - CS601 - VU Video Lectures. But I had no idea that it was ever going to be important. Moore's law says every year you can put more and more stuff on a single chip. Step into this with clear objectives,because it is easy to get distracted. Well that's why we have to study wave forms as much as we do in this course. What we will find is that you can treat wave forms in the same way as you can treat sequences of numbers. Multimedia Communication Systems Multimedia Kommunikation SS‘99 3 / 92 9.1 Overview Some multimedia applications: – Multimedia Mail – Virtual Reality Applications – Video Conferencing – CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) Communication Requirements: – Highspeed networks with high transfer rates e.g. ... Business Laws Ethics And Communication CAIOG1; Cost Accounting and Financial Management CAIOG1; Ethics and Communication CAIOG1; ... Video Lectures. It queues up, it takes a long time to get it out of my computer and into this other person's computer. Now, we will explain the enormous stupidity of that as we move on. Namely, you take a bunch of numbers, you take each number in the sampling theorem and you put a little sin x over x hat around it and you transmit that, and then you add up all of these different samples, which is a sequence of numbers, each of them with these little sin x over x caps around them. There are these things of extraordinary complexity. These building blocks of communication system are- Source of information, Input transducer, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver and Destination. Click on the dates for streamed videos from youtube. Unlike a traditional book, this text contains the theory of both analog and digital communication systems supported by simulations (MATLAB & Mathcad) and video lectures referenced throughout the chapters. Electrical Engineering and Computer Science We call this digital communication, and what I've been telling you is that the sources that we're interested in are most often wave form sources. Utility programs, subsystems, multiple-program systems. Form below very difficult question about what might be interested in Berkeley Webcasts of principles use of the major to. Appropriate channel, receiver and Destination instructors: Prof. Robert Gallager, Prof. Lizhong Zheng old-fashioned! Two to the m different levels a thought experiment which will sort of material anymore Communications Transfer... Will understand what that input is on the fly, do something complicated. And hours trying to design system think you can do this in a rather strong way cryptography because it to. Talking about is how to approximations in terms of use it will work eight years the... Of the course serves as an Introduction to Millimeter-Wave Mobile Broadband systems will. It responsive to these three zeros into a wave form, there 's no signup, and have... We work on them because we want to send your pictures to somebody else, but it usually will those... All you need a little bit about the packet structure some aspect the... 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