Finally, Abu Bakr hoped that by attacking Iraq and Syria he might remove the danger from the borders of the Islamic State. In fact, they are culturally very proud and refuse to speak or learn arabic. It stretched from what is now northeastern Iran, northwestern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan. . Whether Abu Bakr actually intended an all-out imperial conquest or not is hard to say. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one's angle of vision... Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Some meanings have been overlapping in their meanings. Umar was assassinated in November 644 by a Persian slave named Piruz Nahavandi. This was the last battle in his conquest of Mesopotamia. Most persians speak farsi and do not speak arabic. Without opposition, the Arabs had time to consolidate and fortify their positions. The Persians withdrew to the Maysan region, which the Muslims seized later as well.. Under Umar and his immediate successors, the Arab conquerors attempted to maintain their political and cultural cohesion despite the attractions of the civilizations they had conquered. In ca. Arab people, or Arabs, are those people who inhabit the Arab world. Next, he besieged the provincial capital, Zrang, and, after a heavy battle outside the city, its governor, Aparviz, surrendered. The Byzantines attempted to suppress the heresy, alienating the Ghassanids and sparking rebellions on their desert frontiers. In 651 the conquest of Khurasan was assigned to Ahnaf ibn Qais. Arabs are distinguished from other people on the basis of culture, genealogy, and language. , One year later, Abd-Allah ibn Amir sent an army under Rabi ibn Ziyad Harithi to Sakastan. Umar acquiesced, appointing Mugheera ibn Shuba as commander of the forces concentrated at Medina, and Nouman ibn Muqarrin as commander-in-chief at Nahavand. , When Western academics first investigated the Muslim conquest of Persia, they relied solely on the accounts of the Armenian Christian bishop Sebeos, and accounts in Arabic written some time after the events they describe. But if you do not agree to either choice, then, by Allah, I will send to you people who crave death as much as you crave life.”  Khalid did not receive any responses and continued with his tactical plans. In 651, Nu'aym ibn Muqaarin, Nu'man's brother, marched northeast to Rey, Iran, about 320 kilometres (200 mi) from Hamadan, and laid siege to the city, which surrendered after fierce resistance. Although al-'Ala' and the rest of the Arabs had been ordered to not invade Fars or its surrounding islands, he and his men continued their raids into the province. âPersiansâ are an ethnic group inside the country of Iran, in the Iranian Plateau. The Persians, who had only one generation before conquered Egypt and Asia Minor, lost decisive battles when nimble, lightly armed Arabs accustomed to skirmishes and desert warfare attacked them. He accordingly marched against the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of the Sasanian Persians, the Byzantines and Christian Arabs in December. Though considerably weakened, the image of the Persian Empire as a fearsome superpower still resonated in the minds of the newly-ascendant Arabs, and Umar was wary of unnecessary military engagement with it, preferring to leave the rump of the Persian Empire alone, commenting, "I wish there was a mountain of fire between us and the Iranians, so that neither they could get to us, nor we to them. Arabs are identified on the basis of their language, culture, and genealogy. Akram. Farsi language makes use of the same Arabic alphabet that Arabic does, though it is a fact, that Persian language had its own alphabet centuries ago.  Moreover, Muslim missionaries did not encounter difficulty in explaining Islamic tenets to Zoroastrians, as there were many similarities between the faiths. Umar employed his traditional successful strategy of multi-pronged attacks. Around the third week of March 633 (first week of Muharram 12th Hijrah) Khalid set out from Al-Yamama with an army of 10,000. It also spreads from Central Asia to the Caucasus in the north and finally to the Persian Gulf in the south. Upon his return, he received news of the assembling of a large Persian army. Difference between farsi and arabic farsi vs arabic compared. With regards to Persia, Muslim histories further recount that at the beginning of the seventh year of migration, Muhammad appointed one of his officers, Abdullah Huzafah Sahmi Qarashi, to carry his letter to Khosrau II inviting him to convert: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. These letters were carried by ambassadors to Persia, Byzantium, Ethiopia, Egypt, Yemen, and Hira (Iraq) on the same day. Cyrus: Media, Asia Minor (Lydia), Babylonia, Syria, and Palestine. He has the same rights and duties that we have. Language is considered to be one of the most important identifying factors for Arabs. According to Thomas Walker Arnold, for the Persian, he would meet Ahura Mazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis. Since the 1st century BC, the border between the Roman (later Byzantine) and Parthian (later Sassanid) empires had been the Euphrates River. " An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the Arab conquest started precisely when the Sassanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over succession to the Sassanian throne.. He has sent me for the guidance of all people so that I may warn them all of His wrath and may present the unbelievers with an ultimatum. Written by baharmedia on December 16, 2016 in New Blog âIranianâ and âPersianâ mean two separate things.  Saad left Medina with his army in May 636 and arrived at Qadisiyyah in June. Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651. Years of Sassanid-Byzantine wars had ruined trade routes and industry, the population's main income sources. Khosrau was defeated at the Battle of Nineveh in 627, and the Byzantines recaptured all of Syria and penetrated far into the Persian provinces of Mesopotamia. However, before Umar could issue the reappointment order, Khalid died in Emesa.  The Persian citizens sued for peace, agreeing to pay the Jizya.  Qa'qa sought permission to operate deeper in Persia, but Umar rejected the proposal, writing in response: I wish that between the Suwad and the Persian hills there were walls which would prevent them from getting to us, and prevent us from getting to them. , Eighteen months later, Rabi was summoned to Basra, and was replaced by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura. The relationship between Arabs and Persians has always been a source of controversy, not only owing to the contemporary power struggle in the region, but also because of a long history of rivalry that formed an integral part of the national psyche of both people. In 648, 'Abd-Allah ibn al-'Ash'ari forced the governor of Estakhr, Mahak, to surrender the city. " By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. Umar is said to have occasionally set up commissions to survey tax burdens in order to ensure that they wouldn't be more than the land could bear. Umar appointed Hashim ibn Utbah to take Jalawla and Abdullah ibn Muta'am to conquer Tikrit and Mosul. When 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura reached Sakastan, he suppressed the rebellion and defeated the Zunbils of Zabulistan, seizing Bust and a few cities in Zabulistan.. On hearing of the Muslim advance, Yazdegerd III left for Balkh. Persian Armenia, north of Azerbaijan, remained in Persian hands, along with Khurasan. Hormuzan apparently converted to Islam and remained a useful adviser to Umar throughout the remainder of the Persian campaign. Iran to India. Over a period of fourteen years and twelve successive kings, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably, and the power of the central authority passed into the hands of its generals. Eventually, military reinforcements quashed the insurgency and imposed Islamic control. Ch:16, The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. This peace also proved short-lived once Hormuzan was reinforced by fresh Persian troops sent by Emperor Yazdgerd III in late 640. After the victory at Tustar, Abu Musa marched against the strategically important Susa in January 641, capturing it after a siege of a couple of months. Next, Abu Musa marched against Junde Sabur, the only place left of military importance in the Persian province of Khuzistan, which surrendered to the Muslims after a siege of a few weeks. When the first group entered Fars, it was quickly defeated and al-Jarud was killed. Akbar Shah Najeebabadi, The history of Islam. Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, fell in March 637 after a siege of three months. The nobility and city-dwellers were the first to convert.  However, after the last Sasanian-Byzantine war, the Parthians wanted to withdraw from the confederation, and the Sasanians were thus ill-prepared and ill-equipped to mount an effective and cohesive defense against the Muslim armies. The Muslim invasion of Fars began in 638/9, when the Rashidun governor of Bahrain, al-'Ala' ibn al-Hadrami, having defeated some rebellious Arab tribes, seized an island in the Persian Gulf. Within three months, Saad defeated the Persian army in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, effectively ending Sassanid rule west of Persia proper. When the main Arab army reached the Persian borders, Yazdegerd III procrastinated in dispatching an army against the Arabs. In the latter part of 638, Hormuzan, who was one of the seven great chiefs of Persia, and had commanded a corps at the Battle of Qadisiyyah, intensified his raids in Mesopotamia. With victory at Jalawla and occupation of the Tikrit-Mosul region, the whole of Mesopotamia was under Muslim control.  Umar ordered Ahnaf to break up the alliance. The remainder of Yazdegerd's army was defeated at the Battle of Oxus River and retreated across the Oxus to Transoxiana. There too the Persians resisted but were defeated outside the fort, and the Muslims recaptured the city. There were also large and thriving Christian and Jewish communities, along with smaller numbers of Buddhists and other groups. After the accession of Uthman ibn Affan as the new Rashidun Caliph on 11 November, the inhabitants of Bishapur, under the leadership of Shahrag's brother, declared independence, but were defeated. The border was constantly contested. In fact, although Arabs had established hegemony over most of the country, many cities rose in rebellion by killing the Arab governor or attacking their garrisons. FACT: Persians and Arabs are two distinct ethnic groups â two peoples with different languages, cultures, and histories. Umar then would send them a detailed plan of how he wanted the region to be captured. Umar chose Isfahan, as it was the heart of the Persian Empire and a conduit for supply and communications among the Sassanid garrisons, and its capture would isolate Fars and Azerbaijan from Khorasan, Yazdegerd's stronghold. The purpose of this strategy was to allow commanders to mix with their soldiers and to remind them that they are like everyone else: command is only given to the most competent, and, once the battle is over, the commander returns to his previous position. He is also believed to be the mastermind behind Umar's assassination in 644. Saad, on Umar's instructions, attacked Hormuzan, while Utbah ibn Ghazwan, aided by Nouman ibn Muqarin, attacked Ahvaz and forced Hormuzan into a peace treaty, under which Ahvaz would remain in Hormuzan's possession as a Muslim vassal state and would pay tribute. Arabs are people who can trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of tribes of Arabia who lived in the Syrian Desert and Arabian Peninsula; Persians are a part of the Iranian peoples who belong to the Indo-European family. The enemy commander, Shahrvaraz Jadhuyih, along with another Sasanian general, was killed during the battle. Pourshariati's central thesis is that contrary to what was commonly assumed, the Sassanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. But Iran, or Persia, While Heraclius launched his offensive in May 636, Yazdegerd was unable to muster his armies in time to provide the Byzantines with Persian support. However, Muthanna bin Haritha was later victorious in the Battle of Buwayb. While Khalid was on his way to attack Qadissiyah (a key fort en route to Ctesiphon), Abu Bakr ordered him to the Roman front in Syria to assume command there..  Rabi ibn Ziyad was then appointed governor of the province. Fast-forward to 2011 and uprisings across the Arab world caused political instability throughout the region. Suhail marched from Busra in 643; passing through Shiraz and Persepolis, he joined with other armies and then marched against Kerman, which was subdued after a pitched battle with the local garrisons. Nu'aym recaptured Hamadan after a bloody battle, and then proceeded to Rey. For many decades to come, this was the easternmost limit of Muslim rule. ... which was under pressure from the Arab invaders, and was on the verge of being lost. The expedition to Kerman, under Suhail ibn Adi, was sent at roughly the same time as the expeditions to Sistan and Azerbaijan. He too sued for peace. Nu'man III (son of Al-Monder IV), the first Christian Lakhmid king, was deposed and killed by Khusrau II in 602, because of his attempt to throw off Persian suzerainty. • Categorized under Culture | Difference Between Arabs and Persians. Both the language and the race are influenced by Arabs after Islam. The Ghassanids and Lakhmids feuded constantly, which kept them occupied, but that did not greatly affect the Byzantines or the Persians.  During this period, Iran saw the development of massive metropolises, some reaching population numbers of up to 200,000 people. âArab worldâ is considered to be located in North Africa and Western Asia; Persians are those people who inhabit the Iranian Cultural Continent which includes the Iranian Plateau to the Indus River of â¦ The Persian forces at Jalawla were commanded by Mihran. Please note: comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment.  Khalid's reputation as the conqueror of the Eastern Roman provinces demoralized the Persian commanders, most of whom had already been defeated by him during his conquest of Mesopotamia in 633. Nouman died in the action, and, as per Umar's instructions, Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman became the new commander-in-chief. The Persians then withdrew to Hulwan.  He now believed that as long as Persia proper remained under Sassanid rule, the raids into Mesopotamia would continue. , There are differing accounts of the reaction of Khosrau II.. By February 638 there was a lull in the fighting on the Persian front. The latter formed the bulk of the population, served as its sole tax base, and remained its poorest class.  At that time, a series of battles between the Persians and Arabs occurred in the region of Sawad, such as Namaraq, Kaskar and Baqusiatha, in which the Arabs managed to maintain their presence in the area. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without a fight. Muslim control of Fars remained shaky for a time, with several local rebellions following the conquest. Women and children were exempted from the jizya. In his dying charge to Uthman, he is reported to have said, I charge the caliph after me to be kind to the dhimmis, to keep their covenant, to protect them and not to burden them over their strength. B0006RTNB4. Once the reinforcements arrived, Khulayd and some of his men managed to withdraw to Bahrain, while the rest withdrew to Basra. The Arab invasion of Iran made a break with the past that affected not only Iran but all of western Asia and resulted in the assimilation of peoples who shaped and vitalized Muslim culture. On the one hand, he who performs our prayers facing the direction of our Qiblah to face the sacred Mosque in Mekkah and eats our slaughtered animals is a Muslim. Ahnaf returned to Merv and sent a detailed report of his success to the anxiously-waiting Umar, and sought permission to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. And after an interval of silence, Iran reemerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam, eventually adding a new element even to Islam itself. Khalid went there and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal in the last week of August. No effective ruler followed Khosrau II, causing chaos in society and problems in the provincial administration, until Yazdegerd III rose to power. Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, by Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:67, The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Synthesis of Persian conquests. The Arabs then quickly seized Gor, Kazerun and Siraf, while Yazdegerd fled to Kerman.  This assertion has been brought under scrutiny by some modern historians of Islam—notably Grimme and Caetani. As a matter of practicality, the jizya replaced the Sassanid poll taxes, which tended to be much higher than the jizya. Umar strictly instructed his commanders to consult him before making any decisive move in Persia.  The siege continued for a few months before the city surrendered. Throughout the Persian campaign, Umar even appointed the commanders of the wings, the center and the cavalry of the army. They basically belong to the ethnic Indo-European group and exclusively to the ancient Indo-Iranian ethnic group. Hudheifa then continued his march north along the western coast of the Caspian Sea and captured Bab al-Abwab by force. Umar appointed Habib ibn Muslaima to capture Tiflis, Abdulrehman to march north against the mountains and Hudheifa to march against the southern mountains. , Some Iranian historians have defended their forebears using Arab sources to illustrate that "contrary to the claims of some historians, Iranians, in fact, fought long and hard against the invading Arabs. Currently, in modern times, Arabs are identified on the criteria of: Persian people speak the Persian language. The Byzantine clients, the Arab Ghassanids, converted to the Monophysite form of Christianity, which was regarded as heretical by the established Byzantine Orthodox Church. Persian history largely begins with King Cyrus the Great, who is credited with the liberation of Babylon in 528 BC, and the oldest known charter of human rights, referred to as the Cyrus Cylinder, which is housed in Londonâs British Museum. Akram. The rise of Muslims coincided with an unprecedented political, social, economic, and military weakness in Persia.  Moreover, the powerful northern and eastern Parthian families, the kust-i khwarasan and kust-i adurbadagan, withdrew to their respective strongholds and made peace with the Arabs, refusing to fight alongside the Sassanians. The subdistricts were called tasok in Middle Persian, which was adopted into Arabic as tassuj (plural tasasij). However, the first real invasion took place in 650, when Abd-Allah ibn Amir, having secured his position in Kerman, sent an army under Mujashi ibn Mas'ud there. The internal political situation quickly deteriorated after the execution of King Khosrow II in 628 AD. The troops concentrated at Tuster, north of Ahvaz. Al-Muthanna's acts made Abu Bakr think about the expansion of the Rashidun Empire.. The Lakhmids also revolted against the Persian king Khusrau II. During Abu Bakr's era, Khalid ibn al-Walid had left Mesopotamia with half his army of 9000 soldiers to assume command in Syria, whereupon the Persians decided to take back their lost territory. Ch:11.  From Zanjan, Hudheifa marched to Ardabil which surrendered peacefully. Akram.  While giving freedom of choice, the Arab conquerors designated privileges for those who converted to Islam. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution.  He then seized more land in the province. At this point, most of what is now Iraq was under Islamic control.  Islam was readily accepted by Zoroastrians who were employed in industrial and artisan positions because, according to Zoroastrian dogma, such occupations that involved defiling fire made them impure. Owing to the critical situation, Umar wished to command the army personally, but the members of Majlis ash-Shura demurred, claiming that the two-front war required Umar's presence in Medina. When Arab squadrons made their first raids into Sasanian territory, Yazdegerd III did not consider them a threat, and he refused to send an army to encounter the invaders. Under the Command of Allah, I invite you to Him. Meanwhile, Hamadan and Rey had rebelled. (Dari, a variant of the Persian language, is the lingua franca and an official language of Afghanistan and is also spoken in Pakistan.) Iran and Saudi Arabia exploited these upheavals to â¦ Â It refers mainly to the people living in the Arab world which includes North Africa and Western Asia. Ahnaf then marched north directly to Merv, in present-day Turkmenistan. Those paying jizya were subjected to insults and humiliation by the tax collectors. Akram. " An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the Arab conquest started precisely when the Sasanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over who was to succeed the Sasanian throne.. The Sasanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. And everywhere from Iraq all the way down to Yemen, there are ties of family, language and business. The Zagros mountains, a natural barrier, marked the border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire. During the eight years between Iraqs formal declaration of war on September 22, 1980, and Irans acceptance of a cease-fire with effect on July 20, 1988, at the very least half a million and possibly twice as many troops were killed on both sides, at least half a million became permanent invalids, some 228 billion dollars were directly expended, and more than 400 billion dollars of damage (mostly to oil facilities, but also to cities) was inflictedâ¦ It appeared as if the Zagros mountains year later, Rabi was summoned to Basra and. Marched 240 kilometres ( 150 mi ) northeast towards Qom, which was captured without much.! Arab invaders, and the Lakhmids there to plan an organized resistance against the Arabs, and ibn! After decades of warfare against the Byzantine clients were the Ghassanids and Lakhmids constantly... Ibn Adi, was sent at roughly the same at the Battle of Nahavand December... 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